Research at PMMC

Marine Mammal Medicine & Pathology

'Case Studies & Reports in Marine Mammal Pathology' is an occasional, peer-reviewed journal published on-line by Pacific Marine Mammal Center. They will be authored by veterinary students and veterinarians completing externships, internships, etc. at Pacific Marine Mammal Center. In addition, we will occasionally solicit reviews or other pertinent articles from interested parties. These papers will be 'photographically rich' and without length constraints. They will be considered 'living documents,' as they will be periodically revised to include corrections, updates, revised data interpretations and other changes we feel appropriate to the content and message of the paper. If you have any questions or would liked to submit a paper please contact Dr. Richard Evans at

Arcanobacterium phocae-associated pathology in California sea lions stranded along the southern California coast
Samoa Giovannini, DVM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (PMMC intern)

Bacterial Granulomatous Encephalitis in a Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis)
Annie Page, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, Georgia, USA (PMMC intern)

Segniliparus rugosus – associated Bronchiolitis in California Sea Lion
Evans, RH, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 12 (2): 311-312, 2011
*This recent article details the first isolation of the bacterium Segniliparous rugosus in animals.

Staphylococcal pyelonephritis and cystitis in a California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus
Fravel V, Evans RH, Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, Volume 1 (1): 12-14, 2008 (PMMC extern)

Contaminants still high in top-level carnivores in the Southern California Bight: Levels of DDT and PCBs in resident and transient pinnipeds
Mary Ellen Blasius and Gwen D. Goodmanlowe, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 56: 1773-1782, 2008.

Urogenital Carcinomas in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus
Richard H. Evans, DVM, MS, Pacific Marine Mammal Center, Laguna Beach, CA (USA) and Suzana Tkalcic, DVM, PhD, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA (USA)
* Poster displayed at the 18th Ljudvit Jurak International Symposium on Comparative Pathology, Zagreb, Croatia, June 1-2, 2007

Mortality & Morbidity of Pinnipeds Stranded on Orange County Beaches in 2009
Richard H. Evans, DVM, MS (Path.), Pacific Marine Mammal Center, Laguna Beach,CA (USA)
*Poster displayed at the "Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop", Pacific Life Insurance, Newport, California, January 9-10, 2010

Simultaneous Hypo- and Hyper-Metabolic Insults: Effects on Protein Loss and Survival in Advanced Malnutrition (Starvation)
Dennis F. Lawler DVM, FNAP; Basil P. Tangredi DVM; Richard H. Evans DVM, MS, FNAP

Correlations relating plasma vitamin D, plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, and day-of-year in distressed immature California sea lions
(Zalophus californianus)

Basil P Tangredi DVM; Dennis F Lawler DVM, FNAP; Richard H Evans DVM, MS, FNAP

“The Wild, the Watery, and the Unshored” —Antimicrobial Resistance Goes To Sea
Basil P. Tangredi, DVM Richard H. Evans, DVM, MS, FNAP Dennis F. Lawler, DVM, FNAP

Klebsiella sp. & Fluoroquinolone Resistance: Prevalence & Yearly Trend
Basil P. Tangredi DVM

Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis-associated Pleuritis and Pneumonia in a California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)
Sarah Ortega, Western University, School of Veterinary Medicine

Fatal outcome of conspecific trauma in a young California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)
Richard H. Evans, DVM, MS, FNAP and Dennis Lawler DVM, FNAP

Peritonitis Secondary to Multiple, Full-thickness Jejunal Wall Perforations in a California Sea Lion
Elisabeth Mulvany, DVM, Dennis F. Lawler DVM, FNAP and Richard H. Evans DVM, MS, FNAP

Monitoring Ocean Warming: Secondary Microbiology of Starvation in California Sea Lion pups (Zalophus californianus)
Dennis F. Lawler DVM FNAP, Basil P. Tangredi DVM, Richard H. Evans DVM MS FNAP

Ten-Year Study of Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Seals      Basil P. Tangredi DVM      

11-year Study of Antimicrobial Resistant Klebsiella spp. in Pinnipeds
Basil P Tangredi DVM; Dennis F Lawler DVM, FNAP; Richard H Evans DVM, MS, FNAP